annotation — An annotation.


annotation ::= [-]


Common attributes.

Additional attributes:

  • annotates

Additional Constraints

  • annotation must not occur among the children or descendants of annotation
  • If this element is the root element, it must have a version attribute.


The annotation element is a “block” annotation. Block annotations can be used for pop ups and other “out of line” effects.

An annotation element is associated with another element by using a reference to an xml:id value. The association can go in either direction. An annotation element can use an annotates attribute on itself to point to an xml:id on another element. Or the other element can use an annotations attribute (one of the common attributes) on itself to point to an xml:id on an annotation element. There is no assumption that an annotation element is associated with its parent or any other ancestor element.

The attribute type of annotations and annotates is plain text, not IDREF or IDREFS. That enables modular content files to form associations with elements in other files without generating validation errors.

Processing expectations

Application specific.


Common attributes.


Identifies one ore more elements to which this annotation applies


These elements contain annotation: abbrev, accel, acknowledgements, acronym, address, annotation, answer, appendix, application, arg, article, artpagenums, attribution, authorinitials, bibliocoverage, bibliodiv, biblioentry, bibliography, biblioid, bibliolist, bibliomisc, bibliomixed, bibliomset, bibliorelation, biblioset, bibliosource, blockquote, bridgehead, callout, calloutlist, caption (db.caption), caption (db.html.caption), caution, chapter, citation, citebiblioid, citetitle, city, classname, classsynopsisinfo, code, colophon, command, computeroutput, confdates, confnum, confsponsor, conftitle, constant, constraintdef, contractnum, contractsponsor, contrib, country, database, dedication, description, edition, email, emphasis (db._emphasis), emphasis (db.emphasis), entry, envar, errorcode, errorname, errortext, errortype, example, exceptionname, fax, figure, filename, firstname, firstterm (db._firstterm), firstterm (db.firstterm), footnote, foreignphrase (db._foreignphrase), funcdef, funcparams, funcsynopsisinfo, function, givenname, glossary, glossdef, glossdiv, glosslist, glosssee, glossseealso, glossterm (db._glossterm), glossterm (db.glossterm), guibutton, guiicon, guilabel, guimenu, guimenuitem, guisubmenu, hardware, holder, honorific, important, index, indexdiv, info (, info (, info (, info (, info (, informalexample, informalfigure, initializer, interfacename, issuenum, itemizedlist, jobtitle, keycap, keycode, keysym, label, legalnotice, lineage, lineannotation, link, listitem, literal, literallayout, manvolnum, markup, mathphrase, member, merge, methodname, modifier, mousebutton, msgaud, msgexplan, msglevel, msgorig, msgtext, note, olink, option, optional, orderedlist, orgdiv, orgname, otheraddr, othername, package, pagenums, para, paramdef, parameter, partintro, personname, phone, phrase (db._phrase), phrase (db.phrase), pob, postcode, preface, primary, primaryie, procedure, productname, productnumber, programlisting, prompt, property, publishername, qandadiv, qandaset, question, quote (db._quote), quote (db.quote), refdescriptor, refentrytitle, refmiscinfo, refname, refpurpose, refsect1, refsect2, refsect3, refsection, refsynopsisdiv, releaseinfo, remark, replaceable, result, returnvalue, revdescription, revnumber, revremark, screen, secondary, secondaryie, sect1, sect2, sect3, sect4, sect5, section, see, seealso, seealsoie, seeie, seg, segtitle, seriesvolnums, setindex, shortaffil, sidebar, simpara, simplesect, state, step, street, subscript, subtitle, superscript, surname, symbol, synopsis, systemitem, tag, taskprerequisites, taskrelated, tasksummary, td, term, termdef, tertiary, tertiaryie, textobject, th, tip, title, titleabbrev, toc, tocdiv, tocentry, token, topic, trademark, type, uri, userinput, variablelist, varname, volumenum, warning, wordasword, year.


<article xmlns=''>
<title>Example of an annotation</title>

<annotation xml:id="note-parts-list">
  <para>This list is not comprehensive.</para>

<para annotations="note-parts-list">
  An automobile contains an engine,
  wheels, doors, and windows.

Last revised by Norman Walsh on 28 Apr 2016 (git hash: 8efbb30ec1f2a59299576c057927c2032216aea4)